In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients.
So, a study has been conduced to identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. To carry out the study a review in MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10 years has been made to reach consensus through an expert panel.
The results shown that knowledge about how to measure correct mask size and protection of the skin with foam or hydrocolloids dressings are factors related to the incidence of LESADIC, as it conditions the degree of pressure-friction and shear that the interface exerts on the skin. The interface that causes fewer LESADIC and is better tolerated is the face mask. When there are injuries, the first thing is to remove the interface that causes pressure on damaged skin, recommending a Helmet® hood as an alternative, treating the infection, managing the exudate and stimulating perilesional skin. So, the conclusions were that the mask of choice is the facial, always using foam or hydrocolloid dressings on the nasal bridge. Evaluate the condition of the skin under the interface and harness every 4 hours (recommended) and 11 hours (maximum). Evaluate the rotation strategy of the interface at 24 hours if the NIV is still needed on an ongoing basis.
The reference to this article is: Raurell-Torredà M, Romero-Collado A, Rodríguez-Palma M, Farrés-Tarafa M, Martí JD, Hurtado-Pardos B, Peñarrubia-San Florencio L, Saez-Paredes P, Esquinas AM. Prevención y tratamiento de las lesiones cutáneas asociadas a la ventilación mecánica no invasiva. Recomendaciones de expertos. Enferm Intensiva. 2017;28(1):31-41.